Cases on the Web

Cases on the Web (COW) is a series of case-driven continuing medical education activities sponsored by IAS–USA. The COW program was created to offer physicians convenient online access to top-quality education. Selected COW presentations are highlighted below. For a full list of active COW presentations, visit

  • Geriatrics and HIV
    Harjot K. Singh, MD, ScM; Eugenia L. Siegler, MD
    Release date: March 4, 2014 / Last reviewed: January 22, 2018
    CME Credit Available: 1.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™
  • Primary Care Issues in HIV Infection
    Rebecca Glassman, MD
    Release date: January 10, 2013 / Last reviewed: December 1, 2017
    CME Credit Available: 1.50 AMA PRA Category 1 Credits™

Topics in Antiviral Medicine™(TAM)

  • Kidney Disease and HIV Infection
    Christina M. Wyatt, MD
    This article provides a concise review and introduction to the spectrum of commonly observed kidney diseases in patients with HIV, including HIV-associated, comorbidities-associated, and antiretroviral-related kidney disease.
  • Cardiovascular Complications of HIV Infection
    Marshall J. Glesby, MD, PhD
    This article summarizes key considerations in the assessment and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients, including antiretroviral-induced dyslipidemia, the potential association between abacavir and myocardial infarction, the role of HIV-associated inflammation in CVD pathogenesis, the contribution of traditional non-HIV risk factors, and the application of CVD risk equations to HIV-infected persons.

Treatment of HIV and Opportunistic Diseases

HIV Primary Care and Comorbid Conditions

HIV Prevention

Global Guidelines for Management of HIV Infection

Management of HCV Infection

  • HCV Guidance: Recommendations for Testing, Managing, and Treating Hepatitis C (American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, Infectious Diseases Society of America):
  • HEP Drug Interactions (University of Liverpool):

Landmark Publications and Selected Review Articles

  1. The Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) Study Group. CD4+ Count-Guided Interruption of Antiretroviral Treatment. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2283-96: pivotal randomized controlled trial comparing continuous with episodic antiretroviral therapy guided by CD4+ cell count (initiation or reinitiation of therapy at CD4+ cell counts <250/µL and interruption at CD4+ cell counts >350/µL) taught us that treatment interruptions are harmful and increase the risk for opportunistic disease and death. It also contributed to a since expanding body of research on the impact of HIV-associated systemic immune activation and inflammation on both HIV-related and non-AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  2. The INSIGHT START Study Group. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015;373:795-807: randomized controlled trial was the larger of 2 key trials (the other being the TEMPRANO study) that provided the evidence that treatment at higher CD4+ cell counts (>500/µL compared with >350 cells/µL) is beneficial and reduces the risk of not just serious AIDS-related and non–AIDS-related events, but also death. The results gave stronger evidence for the US HIV treatment guidelines recommending initiation of antiretroviral therapy in all HIV-1–infected patients, regardless of CD4+ cell count.
  3. HPTN 052 Study Team. Prevention of HIV-1 Infection With Early Antiretroviral Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:493-505: (initial publication/interim analysis); and Antiretroviral Therapy for the Prevention of HIV-1 Transmission. N Engl J Med. 2016 Jul 18 [Epub ahead of print]: (final analysis).This key randomized trial on the effect of early versus delayed antiretroviral therapy on HIV transmission in HIV-serodiscordant couples provided the strongest evidence to date for the role of HIV treatment in the prevention of sexual HIV transmission.
  4. iPrEx Study Team. Preexposure Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men Who Have Sex With Men. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:2587-2599: phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multinational trial of fixed-dose combination tenofovir disporoxil fumarate/emtricitabine orally once daily for the prevention of HIV acquisition in at-risk men who have sex with men was the first large-scale trial that demonstrated that daily oral preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disporoxil fumarate/emtricitabine is safe and efficacious, particularly with high rates of adherence. It led to the first US guidance on the role of PrEP in the prevention of HIV in high risk populations.
  5. Cohen et al. Acute HIV-1 Infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1943-1954: article reviews the current understanding of HIV-1 transmission and immunopathogenesis in the early stages of HIV-1 infection.

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